Instruments for joint programming
The objective of the ERA-NET instrument is to develop and strengthen the coordination of national and regional research programmes and by doing so strengthen the European Research Area. ERA-NET partners are usually programme managers and owners such as the Dutch Science Council (NWO) and Ministries responsible for programming and funding research. ERA-NETs have started under FP6. In FP7 ERA-NET+ was added, and under H2020 the different types of ERA-NETs are merged in ERA-NET Cofunds. ERA-NETs resulted in more focus (or less fragmentation) across the European Research Area.
Joint Programming Initiatives (JPIs)
Joint programming initiatives bring together committed Member States and Associated Countries to agree on coordination of national research activities, pooling of resources and exploiting synergies and complementarities. They work to do so by implementing a common vision, developing a Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) and subsequent implementation actions. JPIs are tightly linked with the European Unions’ Societal Challenges.
The Article 185 initiatives are specific, long-term cooperations between Member States, financially supported by the EU. They go beyond mere coordinating of research effort towards a joint research programme and dedicated support structures.
European Joint Programming Cofund (EJP)
The European Joint Programme (EJP) under Horizon 2020 is a new instrument designed to support coordinated national research and innovation programmes. EJPs are designed to pool together rather large national programmes, resources and capacities. They strive to not only bring together resources in terms of funding, but also in terms of capacity building, networking, demonstration and dissemination activities.